PCOS is an abbreviation for polycystic ovarian syndrome. It is a condition in which uncontrollable cysts form in the uterus. Cysts are small sac-like membranous pockets that contain fluids, air, or other substances. The larger ones must be surgically removed right away.
This is a very common disease today, and its prevalence is rapidly increasing. The complications of this disease cause an imbalance in your uterus and hormonal cycle. Women with PCOS have a threefold increased risk of miscarriage during the first trimester compared to women with a healthy uterus. Why? Let me elaborate:
- Hormonal imbalance
- ovulation disturbance
- thicker uterine wall
- blood clot formation
In PCOS, sex hormone binding protein levels fall, resulting in higher levels of free testosterone. The male sex hormone testosterone is produced by the ovaries as well. Estrogen, or female hormone, levels remain normal as a result of the conversion of male hormones into estrogen.
Androgen is a hormone that promotes growth. Females are said to produce a small amount of it and Androgen production is increased in PCOS. This can impact the embryo by disrupting the embryonic implantation and development. In normal conditions, hormones send signals to the brain center, which stops releasing the hormones that cause ovulation disruptions. However, in PCOS, the brain centres do not respond to the hormone signals.
All of these hormonal imbalances can cause our fertilized egg to grow slowly or die.
Ovulation is the process by which a healthy and fully developed ovum or egg is released into the oviduct, where fertilization occurs. When the hormones responsible for ovulation and development are disrupted and insufficiently produced, the ovum, even if produced, is unable to complete its life cycle. It will be unable to sustain the changes that occur after fertilization. As a result, it is possible that a miscarriage will occur.
Thicker Uterine Walls
To understand how PCOS affect the uterine walls, you must first understand that once the fertilized egg is implanted in the uterus, the walls thicken to accommodate the growing embryo. If a pregnancy does not occur, the uterine walls are broken. This is also known as menstruation.
Women who have PCOS will experience menstrual irregularities. They frequently skip menstruation, which means the walls remain intact. They instead become thicker and thicker over time.
The thicker lining can prevent successful embryo implantation in the first few days of pregnancy, leading to early pregnancy failure. Women will experience heavier and more painful menstruation as this thicker and extra lining builds up in the uterus.
Blood Clot Formation
Certain inhibitors that cause blood clotting are produced in PCO women. Because the clotting occurs within the uterus, the baby is also affected. As the clotting worsens, the chances of miscarriage rise because a lack of blood flow restricts the flow of nutrients.
Certain surgeries are performed in order to prevent this inhibitor from working and causing clotting. These surgeries may reduce the production of the inhibiting protein, but this is not proof that it will return.
Consult a Doctor
Women with PCOS already have a doctor who is treating their condition. As a result, it is preferable to maintain contact with her and ensure that your baby’s growth is healthy and normal. Furthermore, in the event of an emergency or complication, consult your doctor right away.